PESA Content

PESA Editorial - Rwanda - 3Q2018/19

History of Conflict and its Impact on Rwandan Development

In Rwanda, social cohesion and political structures disintegrated during the German occupation (1897-1916), followed by the Belgians (1916-1962). The history of systematic economic and political disenfranchisement of the Hutu population majority under Belgian rules led to resentment between the Tutsi, Read More

PESA Editorial - South Africa - 3Q2018/19

History of Conflict and its Impact on South African Development

South Africa’s most prominent period of intense political conflict was between 1950 and 1994 with peaks in 1976 and 1984[1]. Unlike other African countries whose independence came with political freedom from colonialism and white domination, South Africa remained under a Read More

PESA Editorial - Mozambique - 3Q2018/19

History of Conflict and its Impact on Mozambican Development

The history of political stability and conflict in Mozambique has not been generally stable and peaceful. This has disrupted the economic growth and development of the country. The first three decades of post-independent Mozambique were characterized by armed conflicts. An Read More