Republic of South Africa

Republic of South Africa

Political Economy Summary

Capital Pretoria
Independence 31 May 1910
Head of State & Govt H.E. Cyril Ramaphosa
Minister of Foreign Affairs Naledi Pandor
Minister of Finance Tito Mboweni
Central Bank Govenor Lesetja Kganyago
Next National Elections Date 2024
Government Website
Parliament Website




Click on a thumbnail below to read the relevant PESA Editorial on South Africa.

Balance of Payments and International FDI Position in South Africa: FY2019/20
South African merchandise export earnings have grown consistently since 2017. The faster export earnings have not been sufficient to improve South Africa’s current account balance ...
Read More
Trade and Regional Integration in South Africa: FY2019/20
South African exports have grown faster than imports during the period from 2015 to 2018. This has improved South Africa’s gross official reserves due to ...
Read More
GDP Growth and Public Finance in South Africa: FY2019/20
The South African economy has faced declining real GDP growth mainly due to high unemployment and inequality which result in subdued aggregate demand, thereby disincentivising ...
Read More
PESA Editorial - South Africa - 3Q2018/19
South Africa’s most prominent period of intense political conflict was between 1950 and 1994 with peaks in 1976 and 1984. Unlike other African countries whose ...
Read More




Click on a thumbnail below to view the latest PESA public engagements on issues relating to South Africa.

Interview about the South African industrial funding response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The discussion evaluates the possible impact of the Department of Small Business Development ...
PESA Power987 Interview
Interview about the South African response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the economic ramifications of the 21-day national lock down. The discussion evaluates the government's ...
PESA NewzRoom Afrika Interview
Interview about the impact of the Corona Virus in Africa and whether South Africa and other African countries are prepared to deal with the epidemic ...
Interview about the 2020 forecast for GDP growth in South Africa reviewing some of the constraints to growth, job-creation and national development. The discussion evaluates ...
South African Geographic Location
Geographic Location

South Africa occupies the southern tip of Africa and its coastline stretching more than 2,500 kilometres from the desert border with Namibia on the Atlantic coast, around the south-most tip of Africa, and around the northeast to the border with Mozambique on the Indian Ocean. The low-lying coastal zone is narrow and gives way to a mountainous escarpment, the Great Escarpment that separates the coast from the high-lying inland plateau. In some places, notably the province of KwaZulu-Natal in the east, a greater distance separates the coast from the escarpment. Although most of the country is classified as semi-arid, it has considerable variation in climate as well as topography.

The South African central plateau contains only two major rivers, namely the Limpopo and the Orange river which runs with a variable flow across the central landscape from east to west, emptying into the Atlantic Ocean at the Namibian border.

South African Cities
South African Cities
South African Coat Arms
Coat of Arms

The present South African coat of arms was introduced on Freedom Day, 27 April 2000, and replaced the earlier national arms, which had been in use since 1910. The change reflected government’s aim to highlight the democratic change in South Africa and a new sense of patriotism. The first element is the motto, in a green semicircle. The motto is: !ke e: /xarra //ke, which means “Diverse People Unite” in the Khoisan language of the /Xam people. It represents individual effort to harness the unity between thought and action. On a collective scale it calls for the nation to unite in a common sense of belonging and national pride – unity in diversity.

Completing the semicircle are two symmetrically placed pairs of elephant tusks pointing upwards. Within the oval shape formed by the tusks are two symmetrical ears of wheat that in turn frame a centrally placed gold shield. The ears of wheat are a symbol of fertility and the idea of germination, growth and the feasible development of any potential. Elephant tusks symbolise wisdom, strength, moderation and eternity. The shield represents a dual function as a vehicle for the display of identity and of spiritual defence. It contains the primary symbol of the nation.

The human figures of red ochre are depicted in an attitude of greeting, symbolising unity. This also represents the beginning of the individual’s transformation into the greater sense of belonging to the nation and by extension, collective humanity. The spear and knobkerrie (club) represent a dual symbol of defence and authority; and are lying down, which symbolises peace.

Follow PESA Online

Follow us on some of your favourite social media.

Contact Us

Please complete the General Enquiry form and submit it to us for a response. Please use the subject “Media” for all media-related requests.


By continuing to use the site, you agree to the use of cookies. Click here for more information.

The cookie settings on this website are set to "allow cookies" to give you the best browsing experience possible. If you continue to use this website without changing your cookie settings or you click "Accept" below then you are consenting to this.