Zambia has been a relatively stable country since its independence in 1964. This is in contrast to several neighbouring countries, which have experienced civil war (Mozambique, Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, and Zimbabwe). However, Zambia has had its fair share of conflict and instability, even though less violent conflict than its neighbours have.
The United Republic of Tanzania is among the most peaceful and politically stable countries in the Great Lakes region, with only a few incidents of socio-political and religious violence recorded since the country’s independence in 1961. This is in stark contrast to the egregious levels of ethnically-motivated violence witnessed in post-colonial Rwanda in 1994, the armed rebellions that afflicted neighbouring Uganda between 1963 and 1986, and the protracted armed conflict that continues to plague the Democratic Republic of Congo.
South Africa’s most prominent period of intense political conflict was between 1950 and 1994 with peaks in 1976 and 1984. Unlike other African countries whose independence came with political freedom from colonialism and white domination, South Africa remained under a white-led racialised administration that oppressed the majority black population even during independence from 1910 to 1994.
In Rwanda, social cohesion and political structures disintegrated during the German occupation (1897-1916), followed by the Belgians (1916-1962). The history of systematic economic and political disenfranchisement of the Hutu population majority under Belgian rules led to resentment between the Tutsi, a minority representing 14.0% of the population, and the Hutu, which constituted 85.0% of the population.
Since independence from France in 1960, Madagascar’s economy and development challenges have been compounded by periodic political unrests that have hampered economic growth and limited public investment. These often prolonged and recurring political crises have been characterised by numerous public protests, several disputed elections, an impeachment, two military coups and one assassination.
The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia is a relatively stable country with positive indications on economic growth and development across its various sectors. Ethiopia has recorded an annual average economic growth of about 10.5% over the last decade, mainly driven by public investments in agriculture, industry and service sectors.