Category: PESA Editorials

PESA Editorial - Zambia - 3Q2018/19

History of Conflict and its Impact on Zambian Development

Zambia has been a relatively stable country since its independence in 1964. This is in contrast to several neighbouring countries, which have experienced civil war (Mozambique, Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, and Zimbabwe). However, Zambia has had its fair share of conflict and instability, even though less violent conflict than its neighbours have.

PESA Editorial - Tanzania - 3Q2018/19

History of Conflict and its Impact on Tanzanian Development

The United Republic of Tanzania is among the most peaceful and politically stable countries in the Great Lakes region, with only a few incidents of socio-political and religious violence recorded since the country’s independence in 1961. This is in stark contrast to the egregious levels of ethnically-motivated violence witnessed in post-colonial Rwanda in 1994, the armed rebellions that afflicted neighbouring Uganda between 1963 and 1986, and the protracted armed conflict that continues to plague the Democratic Republic of Congo.

PESA Editorial - South Africa - 3Q2018/19

History of Conflict and its Impact on South African Development

South Africa’s most prominent period of intense political conflict was between 1950 and 1994 with peaks in 1976 and 1984. Unlike other African countries whose independence came with political freedom from colonialism and white domination, South Africa remained under a white-led racialised administration that oppressed the majority black population even during independence from 1910 to 1994.

PESA Editorial - Rwanda - 3Q2018/19

History of Conflict and its Impact on Rwandan Development

In Rwanda, social cohesion and political structures disintegrated during the German occupation (1897-1916), followed by the Belgians (1916-1962). The history of systematic economic and political disenfranchisement of the Hutu population majority under Belgian rules led to resentment between the Tutsi, a minority representing 14.0% of the population, and the Hutu, which constituted 85.0% of the population.

PESA Editorial - Mauritius - 3Q2018/19

History of Conflict and its Impact on Mauritian Development

Mauritius gained its independence in 1968 and it is one of the most developed and politically stable states in Africa which boasts of a multi-party parliamentary democratic system and an upper middle-income economy with an estimated GDP of USD 13.1 billion.

PESA Editorial - Madagascar - 3Q2018/19

History of Conflict and its Impact on Madagascan Development

Since independence from France in 1960, Madagascar’s economy and development challenges have been compounded by periodic political unrests that have hampered economic growth and limited public investment. These often prolonged and recurring political crises have been characterised by numerous public protests, several disputed elections, an impeachment, two military coups and one assassination.

PESA Editorial - Lesotho - 3Q2018/19

History of Conflict and its Impact on Basotho Development

Political instability and conflict has become systematic in Lesotho since independence in 1966. The country attained independence under the leadership of Leabua Jonathan of the Basotho National Party (BNP) who became the first Prime Minister.

PESA Editorial - Kenyan - 3Q2018/19

History of Conflict and its Impact on Kenyan Development

The post-election violence experienced in Kenya following a widely disputed election in December 2007 was unprecedented both in terms of scale and intensity. Over 1000 lives were lost as a result of the ethnic clashes between supporters of opposing political parties.

PESA Editorial - Ethiopia - 3Q2018/19

History of Conflict and its Impact on Ethiopian Development

The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia is a relatively stable country with positive indications on economic growth and development across its various sectors. Ethiopia has recorded an annual average economic growth of about 10.5% over the last decade, mainly driven by public investments in agriculture, industry and service sectors.