Republic of Rwanda

Republic of Rwanda

Political Economy Summary

Capital Kigali
Independence 1 July 1962
Head of State & Govt H.E. Paul Kagame
Prime Minister Édouard Ngirente
Minister of Foreign Affairs Vincent Biruta
Minister of Finance Uzziel Ndagijimana
Central Bank Govenor John Rwangombwa
Next National Elections Date August 2024
Government Website
Parliament Website


Click on a thumbnail below to read the relevant PESA Editorial regarding Rwanda.

Balance of Payments and International FDI Position in Rwanda: FY2019/20
Rwandan merchandise export earnings have been growing consistently since 2015. The faster export earnings have not been sufficient to improve Rwanda’s current account balance. The ...
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Trade and Regional Integration in Rwanda: FY2019/20
Rwandan exports have been growing faster than imports during the period from 2015 to 2018. This has not led to a short-term positive impact on ...
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PESA Editorial - Rwanda - 3Q2018/19
In Rwanda, social cohesion and political structures disintegrated during the German occupation (1897-1916), followed by the Belgians (1916-1962). The history of systematic economic and political ...
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Click on a thumbnail below to read the relevant PESA Regional Integration Monitor relating to Rwanda.

Political Economy of Regional Integration in SADC
The September 2016 issue is an introduction to regional integration – What are the key RECs in the region? how are the countries and institutions ...
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Click on a thumbnail below to view the latest PESA Policy Dialogues on issues relating to Rwanda.

Political Economy Review: Rwanda's Development Miracle
Interview reflecting on the economic and development achievements of Rwanda from the devastating genocide of 1994 to where the country is now. The interview examines ...
Political Economy Review: Rwanda-Uganda Relations and DRC Conflict
Interview analysing the rising tensions after Rwanda prohibited Ugandan trucks from entering its territory and its citizens from cross the Katuna border which is the ...
2017 French Elections and Françafrique
Interview about the 2017 French Presidential Elections and the future of Françafrique and the CFA Franc. The interview also analyses the political economy outlook and ...


Geographic Location

Rwanda is a country in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland. Located a few degrees south of the Equator, Rwanda is bordered by Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Rwanda is in the African Great Lakes region and is highly elevated; its geography is dominated by mountains in the west and savanna to the east, with numerous lakes throughout the country. The climate is temperate to subtropical, with two rainy seasons and two dry seasons each year.

Rwandan Cities
Rwandan Coat of Arms
National Seal

The seal of Rwanda is the national symbol and used by the government. It was restyled in 2001 to match the color scheme of the new national flag. The text reads “Republic of Rwanda – Unity, Work, Patriotism” in Kinyarwanda. The central tribal devices, a stem of sorghum, a branch of a coffee tree and a traditional basket are surmounted on a cog wheel with the sun with its rays above, while two typical Rwandan shields protects them, one on the right and one on the left. They are encircled by a square knot.

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