Republic of Botswana

Republic of Botswana

Political Economy Summary

Capital Gaborone
Independence 30 September 1966
Head of State & Govt H.E. Mokgweetsi Masisi
Minister of Foreign Affairs Unity Dow
Minister of Finance Thapelo Matsheka
Central Bank Govenor Moses Dinekere Pelaelo
Next National Elections Date 2024
Government Website
Parliament Website


Click on a thumbnail below to read the relevant PESA Editorial regarding Botswana.

Balance of Payments and International FDI Position in Botswana: FY2019/20
Botswana's merchandise export earnings have been volatile since 2016. The volatility in exports has not resulted in deterioration of gross official reserves due to the ...
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Trade and Regional Integration in Botswana: FY2019/20
Botswana's exports have been steady during the period from 2015 to 2018. The growth in exports has resulted in a steady increase in gross official ...
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PESA Editorial - Botswana - 2Q2018/19
Despite the abundance of natural resources, numerous African countries found development difficult to attain following their independence due to low levels of external investment, governance ...
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Botswana Land Reform and Rural Transformation Overview
Increased globalisation and unpredictable weather patterns have left many rural livelihoods more exposed to external shocks. Agricultural-based rural livelihoods are typically under-resourced, have low productivity ...
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Click on a thumbnail below to read the relevant PESA Regional Integration Monitor relating to Botswana.

Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic in SADC
The July 2020 issue focuses on assessing the impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) and evaluates the readiness and gaps in the region's public capacity; and ...
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Climate Change and Adaptation in SADC
The April 2020 issue focuses on assessing the impact of climate change and evaluating the effectiveness of regional systems and national responses to the crisis ...
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Youth Unemployment and Empowerment in SADC
The July 2019 issue focuses on providing an overview of youth empowerment in SADC - What is the current state of youth unemployment and youth ...
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Public Debt and Government Finances in SADC
The April 2019 issue focuses on providing an overview of public debt in SADC and what needs to be done to retain debt sustainability in ...
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Click on a thumbnail below to view the latest PESA Policy Dialogues on issues relating to Botswana.

Political Economy Review: South Africa 2021 Riots and Looting
Interview reflecting about the regional impact of the July 2021 riots and looting in South Africa on the SADC region. The interview looks at the ...
Political Economy Review: 2019 Botswana Elections & Russia-Africa Summit
Analysis of the possible outcomes from the 2019 Botswana general elections and the impact of the fallout between former President Seretse Khama and incumbent President ...
Political Economy Review: SACU and SADC in 2019
Interview reflecting on the regional impact of slow growth in South Africa and how it affects neighbouring countries in SADC and SACU. The interview examines ...
Political Economy Review: Botswana's Economic Diversification
Interview about the recent discovery of the second-largest diamond which was discovered in Botswana and measured at 1,758-carats. The interview reviews why Botswana has not ...


Botswana Geographic Location
Geographic Location

Botswana is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa, north of South Africa. Botswana has land boundaries shared with Namibia to the west, South Africa to the south-east, Zimbabwe and Zambia to the north-east. Much of the population of Botswana is concentrated in the eastern part of the country.

Batswana Cities
Batswana Cities
Batswana Coat Arms
Coat of Arms

The Batswana coat of arms was adopted on January 25, 1966. The centre shield is supported by two zebras. On the top portion of the shield are three cogwheels that represent industry. The three waves symbolise water and rain, or in pula seTswana, which also means good luck and is the name of the nation’s currency. Pula, which is also found on the bottom ribbon of the coat of arms, represents the importance of water to Batswana.

At the bottom of the shield there is a head of cattle, which symbolises the importance of cattle herding in Botswana. The two zebras also symbolise the importance of wildlife, through tourism, in the national economy. Also, zebras have black and white stripes which represents equality of people of all colors in Botswana. The zebra on the right holds an ear of sorghum, an important crop in the nation. The zebra on the left holds a tusk of ivory, symbolic of the former ivory trade in Botswana. There is also a view that the ivory tusk represents wild life preservation. Botswana has one of the highest elephant populations in Africa.

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