Economic Research

PESA Editorial - Rwanda - 3Q2018/19

History of Conflict and its Impact on Rwandan Development

In Rwanda, social cohesion and political structures disintegrated during the German occupation (1897-1916), followed by the Belgians (1916-1962). The history of systematic economic and political disenfranchisement of the Hutu population majority under Belgian rules led to resentment between the Tutsi, Read More

PESA Editorial - South Africa - 3Q2018/19

History of Conflict and its Impact on South African Development

South Africa’s most prominent period of intense political conflict was between 1950 and 1994 with peaks in 1976 and 1984[1]. Unlike other African countries whose independence came with political freedom from colonialism and white domination, South Africa remained under a Read More

PESA Editorial - Mozambique - 3Q2018/19

History of Conflict and its Impact on Mozambican Development

The history of political stability and conflict in Mozambique has not been generally stable and peaceful. This has disrupted the economic growth and development of the country. The first three decades of post-independent Mozambique were characterized by armed conflicts. An Read More

PESA Editorial - Madagascar - 3Q2018/19

History of Conflict and its Impact on Madagascan Development

Since independence from France in 1960, Madagascar’s economy and development challenges have been compounded by periodic political unrests that have hampered economic growth and limited public investment. These often prolonged and recurring political crises have been characterised by numerous public Read More

PESA Editorial - Lesotho - 3Q2018/19

History of Conflict and its Impact on Basotho Development

Political instability and conflict has become systematic in Lesotho since independence in 1966. The country attained independence under the leadership of Leabua Jonathan of the Basotho National Party (BNP) who became the first Prime Minister. Lesotho has endured disproportionate cycles Read More

PESA Editorial - Comoros - 3Q2018/19

History of Conflict and its Impact on Comorian Development

Political stability and economic growth go hand-in-hand and it is generally expected that political turmoil and conflict undermine countries’ development. The Union of the Comoros illustrates this quite well[1]. The Comoros has had a long history of conflicts and military Read More